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Frequently Asked Questions

For specific information on ICAO data, a glossary of terms, product brochure, and informational video, please consult the icons below. A frequently asked questions module will also provide you with valuable insight on the Data+ product and the information presented within it.

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ICAO Data Notes

Questions

  • How can I subscribe to this product?

    Subscription to Data + refers to a paid subscription. Once payment is confirmed you will receive an email with instructions to subscribe.
  • What happens after I have paid my subscription?

    Once ICAO confirms the payment, you will receive an email with instructions for registration.
  • How many people can access the app with my user name/password?

    The user name and password issued to you is for your own use and is your responsibility to ensure that other people do not make use of it.
  • How do I activate an app?

    Once you receive the email with your user and password, go to the Modules tab and click on the LAUNCH button of the app you purchased.
  • Who do I contact if I need support?

    If you have any questions regarding data or have technical issues and the FAQ can’t help you, please contact CADS.
  • What browser can I use to connect to ICAO Data+?

    ICAO Data + can be accessed using Firefox, Google Chrome or MS Explorer. Please note that if using MS Explorer some graphics might not display as it does not support certain features.
  • Do I need to download a plug-in??

    No, just open your browser and enter the URL for the website.
  • I was not able to download or print any data, why?

    All paid subscriptions have access to all capabilities including downloading and printing. If you are not able to download or print, you might have a courtesy access.
  • Is there a download limit?

    Yes, the limit is 5000 lines per each download.
  • What is the source of data for all modules in ICAO Data+?

    The statistical data collected by ICAO are reported by the national Civil Aviation Authorities of it Member States.
  • Is the data published by ICAO and IATA comparable?

    Yes, both organizations use the same definitions for their statistical terms. However, the values may differ as it depends on the inclusion or not of subsidiaries for the main carrier.
  • Is the data collected by ICAO for their Statistics Programme publicly available?

    Yes, the only restriction on place refers to On-Flight Origin and Destination (OFOD). The data can only be released six months after the end of the reporting period.
  • How often is the data refreshed?

    ICAO receives data via reporting forms on a daily basis, however the data displayed in ICAO Data + is refreshed on a weekly basis.
  • What periods are covered by the data in various apps in ICAO Data+?

    The table below shows the first year for which data are available in each app as well as their periodicity.
  • When I compare the overall annual totals for the individual data series I get some strange percentage changes, what is wrong?

    All the data shown in ICAO Data+ are as reported by States. Unfortunately, the reports which ICAO receives each year from its Members may differ in the number of air carriers/airports submitted as well as the time periods covered. Hence, the overall annual totals shown on the screen may contain data for different entities and periods. The only way to compare similar data is by ensuring through the selection process that all the time periods requested cover the same group of entities. However, depending on the data series concerned some apparent anomalous changes may occur if during the time periods some air carriers ceased operations or new carriers entered the market.
  • What is the difference between a country and a territory?

    Generally a territory is a land mass which is part of or administered by a country. In ICAO, data reported by a country includes data for any entity in a territory administered by that country. When data is shown by Region, data for territories is assigned to its geographical region. For example, Guadeloupe and Martinique are overseas territories of France. The data for these is included in Latin America/Caribbean whereas data for France is included in Europe.
  • Why can’t I find data for Taiwan?

    The United Nations identifies Taiwan as a Province of China. As such, ICAO cannot approach the civil aviation administration in Taiwan to request aviation data.
  • Where can I find an explanation of the data terms?

    Copies of the ICAO Reporting Forms with their corresponding instructions and definitions in the six official ICAO languages are found here.
  • When I compare the overall annual totals for the individual data series I get some strange percentage changes, what is wrong?

    All the data shown in ICAO Data+ are as reported by States. Unfortunately, the reports which ICAO receives each year from its Members may differ in the number of air carriers/airports submitted as well as the time periods covered. Hence, the overall annual totals shown on the screen may contain data for different entities and periods. The only way to compare similar data is by ensuring through the selection process that all the time periods requested cover the same group of entities. However, depending on the data series concerned some apparent anomalous changes may occur if during the time periods some air carriers ceased operations or new carriers entered the market.
  • Why are LAN figures different in ICAO and IATA data?

    The IATA figures refer to the LAN Airlines Group, whereas in ICAO each member of the Group, which is registered in a different State, reports the data separately. This situation may also arise for air carrier subsidiaries registered in the same country.
  • Why is the data published by journalists not comparable with ICAO data?

    Journalists take data from different sources that could have different scopes or terms that may not be the same as ICAO or IATA.
  • How are "passengers carried" by country determined?

    Air carrier data per country refers to passengers carried by airlines registered in that country regardless of the origin or destination of the passengers. It does not refer to passengers flying in to a country or from that country. For example, passengers reported by Ireland refer to passengers carried by Ryanair, among others, as Ryanair is registered in Ireland.
  • I tried to do a query covering a number of years and the computer appeared to freeze. What happened?

    When setting up a query you need to reduce the amount of data to retrieve. For example, define first the carriers and then the time period, otherwise it will attempt to download all the carriers for the given time frame.
  • When I compare the overall annual totals for the individual data series I get some strange percentage changes, what is wrong?

    All the data shown in ICAO Data+ are as reported by States. Unfortunately, the reports which ICAO receives each year from its Members may differ in the number of air carriers/airports submitted as well as the time periods covered. Hence, the overall annual totals shown on the screen may contain data for different entities and periods. The only way to compare similar data is by ensuring through the selection process that all the time periods requested cover the same group of entities. However, depending on the data series concerned some apparent anomalous changes may occur if during the time periods some air carriers ceased operations or new carriers entered the market.
  • What is the difference between OFOD and TFS? The data seems very similar.

    A flight itinerary (identified by a flight number) may have one or more flight stages. OFOD shows the traffic carried between its point of embarkation and disembarkation for that flight itinerary. TFS shows the traffic on-board an aircraft during each flight stage of that itinerary regardless of where that traffic may have joined or left that flight.
  • I cannot find traffic for a specific airport.

    In OFOD and TFS traffic is by city-pairs and not by airport-pairs. Some cities may have multiple airports serving their metropolitan area. For example Luton airport is included in the traffic for London (LON).
  • How is the distance between city-pairs calculated when there is more than one airport serving one of the cities?

    In the case of a metropolitan area, the coordinates used are those of the principal international airport in that area; e.g. for London (LON) the principal airport is Heathrow.
  • Which aircraft does the code MISC refer to?

    This code will appear mainly with older data when reporting carriers were able to use the code MISC (miscellaneous) to identify that several different aircraft types were used to carry the traffic between a city-pair as at that time they were not required to report the traffic for each aircraft used. This last requirement was only introduced in 2001 with the implementation of a new data base system at ICAO.
  • Does it cover domestic flights?

    No, it only covers international flights.
  • Why is the financial data in the app different the one published in the Annual Report for the same air carrier?

    The data in the financial app has been modified so that the individual revenue and cost items are directly related to the traffic carried and capacity offered by the aircraft operated by the reporting carrier. The financial data in the Annual Report may include figures for other commercial activities carried out by the carrier concerned.
  • Why is the traffic and capacity data in the traffic app different than the one in the financial app for a given air carrier?

    The traffic and capacity data published in the financial app for a particular carrier are those which relate directly to the operating revenues and expenses shown. These may include data for subsidiaries which in the traffic module are shown separately.
  • What exchange rate is applied to convert to US dollars?

    When the exchange rate is not indicated in the reporting form, the average exchange rate for the fiscal year reported based on the average applicable average monthly rate is applied. The ICAO database system handles daily exchange rates, the annual average is based on 365 (or 366) days instead of 12 month average.
  • At the beginning of major revenue or cost items, the <not specified> label appears, what does this refer to?

    In the financial app, some main accounts for revenue and cost are broken down into two or more sub-accounts (e.g. Item 1.0 Operating revenues - Scheduled services). Data+ then calculates the total for each main account by adding the relevant sub-account figures. However, some air carriers only report the total figure thus it is necessary to input a figure in the sub-account to be able to get a total. Consequently, the <not specified> label is used for these particular circumstances to identify the reported total for the main account.
  • Why are the regional traffic and capacity figures different in the financial app compared with those in the traffic app?

    The regional traffic and capacity figures in the financial app reflect the system wide operations of air carriers in a region, i.e. they include the non-scheduled flights of scheduled airlines, whereas in the traffic app, the figures only show the scheduled operations of those air carriers.
  • When I compare the overall annual totals for the individual data series I get some strange percentage changes, what is wrong?

    All the data shown in ICAO Data+ are as reported by States. Unfortunately, the reports which ICAO receives each year from its Members may differ in the number of air carriers/airports submitted as well as the time periods covered. Hence, the overall annual totals shown on the screen may contain data for different entities and periods. The only way to compare similar data is by ensuring through the selection process that all the time periods requested cover the same group of entities. However, depending on the data series concerned some apparent anomalous changes may occur if during the time periods some air carriers ceased operations or new carriers entered the market.
  • According to ACI, airports processed 4 billion passengers and ICAO reports 2 billion passengers in the same time period, why the discrepancy?

    Both are correct as airports count passengers when they embark AND disembark (a passenger might be counted twice) whereas air carriers count passengers on-board (embarked).
  • I cannot find certain airport, why?

    States report traffic data for main international airports. As of 2012, major domestic airports are also included.
  • What is a direct transit passenger?

    It is a passenger who arrives and departs in a certain airport under a single air ticket on the same or different aircraft identified by the same airline designator and flight number. Direct transit traffic is counted only once. Passengers who change air carriers or flight numbers are said to be transfer passengers and are treated as other passengers disembarking and embarking at that airport.
  • Why can’t I find airport data beyond 2013?

    2014 data and beyond are found in the new ACI Airport Data.
  • What is the difference between OFOD and TFS? They seem to show similar data.

    A flight itinerary (identified by a flight number) may have one or more flight stages. OFOD shows the traffic carried between its point of embarkation and disembarkation for that flight itinerary. TFS shows the traffic on-board an aircraft during each flight stage of that itinerary regardless of where that traffic may have joined or left that flight.
  • I noticed a large increase/decrease in the traffic for a particular city-pair; how can it be?

    This could happen due to a reporting issue or to a change in the services offered. Verify if the number of carriers reporting data for the city-pair has changed for the periods in question.
  • I cannot find traffic for a specific airport.

    In OFOD and TFS traffic is by city-pairs and not by airport-pairs. Some cities may have multiple airports serving their metropolitan area. For example Luton airport is included in the traffic for London (LON).
  • What are the Freedoms of the Air?

    The Freedoms of the Air are a set of commercial aviation rights granting a country's airlines to overfly another country’s airspace and to land for a technical stop as well as the privilege pick-up and discharge traffic in another country's territory. The figure below shows in graphical forms the current Nine Freedoms of the Air.
  • What is cabotage?

    Cabotage is the transport of passengers or freight between two points in the same country by an aircraft registered in another country. See 8th and 9th Freedoms of the Air.
  • Does it cover domestic flights?

    No, it only covers international flights.
  • How is the average aircraft daily utilization calculated?

    It is obtained by dividing the number of hours flown by the corresponding number of days that aircraft type is available for service during the reporting period.
  • What does payload refer to?

    Payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight. Depending on the nature of the flight or mission, the payload of a vehicle may include cargo, passengers, flight crew, munitions, scientific instruments or experiments, or other equipment.
    Total payload capacity (tonnes). It is the total payload capacity measured in metric tonnes available during the year, above and below the deck, for the carriage of revenue load (passengers, baggage, freight and mail) taking into account payload restrictions, where applicable, and operational restrictions on the supply of capacity between each pair of stations.
  • What does MCTOM stand for?

    It stands for stands for Maximum Certified Take-Off Mass.
    Air carriers should report the report the average maximum certificated take-off mass (MCTOM) (in metric tonnes) according to the certificate of airworthiness, the flight manual or other official documents. Aircraft mass is reported in metric tonnes.
  • What cost elements are included under the remuneration figures shown in the personnel data series?

    The remuneration figures cover the total annual air carrier expenditures for the salaries and allowances of their employees, such as the gross salary (before deduction of income tax, pension, social welfare and voluntary payments), overtime pay, flying pay, and subsistence allowances (such as cost-of-living, station and overseas allowances). They do not cover expenses for travelling, moving, training, uniforms, etc.
  • What is the difference between Embarked, Disembarked and Transit passengers?

    Embarked (enplaned) passengers - Passengers whose air journey begins at the designated airport including passengers who having arrived by air are continuing their air journey on a flight with a different airline or flight number. Does not include direct transit passengers.
    Disembarked (deplaned) passengers - Passengers whose air journey terminates at the designated airport including those who will continue their air journey on a connecting flight with a different airline or flight number. Does not include direct transit passengers.
    Direct transit passengers - Passengers which arrive and depart under a single air ticket, without a stopover, on the same or different aircraft identified by the same airline designator and flight number. Direct transit passengers are counted only once.
  • What are movements referred to?

    A movement is a landing or take-off of an aircraft at an airport.
  • What is the source of the data?

    The data is obtained from airports, airport operators, airport websites and/or civil aviation authorities.
  • How frequently is the data updated?

    Annual data: annually, in July (7 months after the reference year)
    Monthly data: monthly updates (12 to 13 weeks after the reference month)
  • Definitions

    Movements: A movement is a landing or take-off of an aircraft at an airport.
    Passenger and Combi (combination) Aircraft: Movements by aircraft and helicopters operated for commercial transport operations involving passengers, freight and mail.
    All-Cargo and Mail Aircraft: Movements by aircraft and helicopters operated for commercial transport operations involving goods and/or mail only.
    Air Transport Movements: An air transport movement is a landing or take-off of an aircraft operating a scheduled or non-scheduled service.
    - Scheduled Service: any flight with a scheduled timetable; any additional flight resulting from extra traffic on services with a scheduled timetable.
    - Non-Scheduled: any revenue flight and charter, other than 'scheduled service' flights, with the exception of positioning flights.
    General Aviation and Other Aircraft Movements:
    Movements of aircraft and helicopters belonging to:
    - companies with an air taxi or air work license
    - an individual, a flying club or a company whose main objective is not to provide revenue passenger transport
    Positioning, test and training flights of airline, state and military aircraft.
    Commercial Passengers: The number of revenue and non-revenue passengers arriving or departing via commercial aircraft and helicopters on a scheduled or non-scheduled flight (including air taxi and business flights)
    Terminal Passengers:
    Total of terminating and transfer passengers.
    Terminating: passengers starting and ending their trip at the designated airport.
    Transfer: passengers arriving and departing on a different aircraft, or on the same aircraft bearing different flight numbers. They are counted TWICE: upon arrival and departure and included in international/domestic passengers.
    Direct Transit Passengers: Passengers who arrive at and depart from the airport on a flight bearing the same number. They are counted only ONCE, either upon arrival or upon departure.
    Cargo: Cargo is freight + mail, including express, loaded and unloaded (arriving or departing) at the airport. Freight comprises goods, newspapers, diplomatic bags, parcel post and express parcel. Mail comprises closed bags handed over by the postal service. Cargo does not include passenger baggage and trucked freight.
    Domestic: Traffic (passengers, freight and mail) performed between two airports located in the same country/territory.
    International: Traffic (passengers, freight and mail) performed between the designated airport and an airport in another country/territory.